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Completely new types of viruses like Covid-19 are on everyone's lips – in the full angst-inducing sense of this inscrutable term. Worldwide, thousands of scientific researchers are working hard to find a solution to this monstrosity, which is not really understood by anybody. However, the key we are looking for will not be found by genetic intervention in the DNA of the virus. Thus, we do not need an antigen therapy (a.k.a. vaccine) but a preventive therapy (a.k.a. isolating / neutralizing agent), which blocks Covid-19 from docking to our Th cells and Covid-19 thereby withdraws from the significant food source. To understand this, we must first have a look at the context in which any virus can be computed with algorithms and therefore can be decoded (it’s the only reason why viruses can roam the Internet as algorithmic programs; they are the tools of all hackers). Those who want to understand this predicament in all its aspects, must not only be familiar with biology and microbiology, but also with molecular medicine and biochemistry – and above all, in mathematics and physics. However, researchers at universities and institutes barely have an interdisciplinary approach, therefore such an immensely complex topic can only be tackled by a researching entity that places the appropriate demands on research in this area. FEAT is such an entity.
Gene therapeutic approach
As in genetic engineering, the fundamental genetic substance of organisms is deliberately modified; scilicet, in our antigen-therapy it is common practice to integrate an antigen into the genome of the host organism so the host can produce newly coded proteins dictated by the implanted foreign gene. The second step of our therapy is to use specified enzymes which are both carriers and tools of the heritable genetic material. Its organic macromolecules act as biological catalysts to facilitate and accelerate the chemical reactions in the therapied organisms without being modified. Moreover, these enzymes will be changed in such manner that the physical modifications they are subjected to are completely reversible. The deciding factor, however, is the own action hub within the enzyme to dock onto the substrate – whereas each enzyme and substrate is complementary to each other, so that one cannot work without the other. Basis for this is a full enzyme synthesis, since all information required for enzyme synthesis is, as is the case with other proteins, encoded as algorithms in the genetic material of the subject. The chemical carrier of this information is, as is well known, DNA.
Gene therapeutic issue
In the following step we are operating with the prepared viral passenger DNA that will be introduced into the affected bacteria, the smallest living creatures of the world (without bacteria, there is no life! This makes bacteria even more vulnerable, as they are under constant threat by viruses that inject their DNA or RNA into bacteria cells). Consequently, the new bacterial protein synthesis mechanism developed by FEAT is reprogrammed in such way that instead of new infected bacteria proteins, it starts to produce new viruses as specified antigens. In other words, with specially prepared restriction enzymes we literally chop the foreign DNA resulting from the viral diseases in bits and pieces. In doing so, we interrupt its natural protection mechanism to accelerate it with the restriction enzymes and counteract further viral attacks even faster. On this way we protect the vulnerable bacteria's own DNA against its own restriction enzymes using methylated bases. But since the virus-DNA doesn’t have such methyl groups, it is identified as foreign by the restriction enzymes, thereby slowing down the reproduction process of the virus. Finally, this antigen-therapy is undertaken independently from our achievements in preventing viral diseases prophylactically as described in Art. 3:
Preventive therapeutic methods:
Especially in the field of preventive medicine, we have succeeded in identifying numerous polyphenols (such in Humulus lupulus L.) using new methods, which on the one hand exhibit very different efficacy and on the other hand (thanks to their combined effect) form a complementary unitary principle. Due to the interdisciplinary research discipline, our research scientific staff succeed in causatively, i.e. prophylactically, preventing diseases, instead of containing them primarily symptomatically, only after they have already manifested themselves. This preventive medical key-lock-principle is based primarily on maintaining and supporting a stable immune system, which, as is well known, is also weakened in conventional medicine (e.g. chemotherapy, antibiotics, cortisone, etc.), and this at a time when it is most severely challenged. The first comprehensive decoding of the whole hop polyphenols, i.e. molecular structural fragmentation and quantification, genomevectoral sequencing, microbial and enzymatic examination, microbiochemical and biophysical deproteination and isolation, in order to finally prepare them for dermatological application was performed by our scientists. During this research process, we discovered numerous new health benefits in them, so that it is all the more surprising that their compact, natural healing tincture has received so little attention to date. In view of the increasingly frequent, sometimes completely new disease patterns in all humans, who will soon number 8 billion, it is imperative that this discovery be applied in the right way. In addition to our new DNA sequencing technologies, we use spectrophotometric methods, namely HPLC analysis (high-performance liquid chromatography), for extremely precise determination of each individual phenol and polyphenol to ensure the individual and complete detection of each phenolic acid together with all other hop constituents.
Preventive therapeutic issues
To sum up, our researched and applied new medicine deals with the following main specifics: In particular, our new hop polyphenols have antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiallergic, antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, blood sugar regulating and blood pressure controlling effects; they are able to prevent the onset of cancer and are among the rarest natural substances that can be used as a so-called “cancer brake” in chemoprevention measures: in every stage of cancer development (Initiation→ Promotion→ Progression) they are capable of supporting our organism, slowing down and stopping disease processes. As anti-promoters, they protect our DNA from attacks by reactive oxygen free radicals by inducing certain enzymes, which in turn protect us from cell degeneration, promote normal cell division and maturation, and inhibit the growth of cancer cells that have already formed. The flavonoids among them also have the following additional significance: as radical scavengers they are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species, which would otherwise (under certain conditions) lead to oxidative stress in the organism, resulting in cardiovascular diseases and cancer as well as diabetes, age-related eye diseases, etc. Their antioxidants also dermally prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which is ingested with food, thus inhibiting the formation of calcium deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels: Arteriosclerosis! According to epidemiological studies, higher flavonol intake (oral and dermal!) reduces the incidence of fatal heart attacks and they also have an antilipemic effect on the adipocytes, thus preventing cellulitis. Everything hinges on a stable immun system - irrespective of wether it's cancer, human immundeficiency or any new type of virus.
Mens sana in corpore sano - or in this context: A stable immune system in a healthy organism!
Preventive therapeutic options
The large number of hop polyphenols and phenols exhibiting different effects requires individual dosage, especially since the benchmark criteria for the selection of individual polyphenols in their respective dosage depending on age, sex, skin type, skin pH value, metabolism, mental state, diseases as well as many other states of well-being, such as in the context of TCM and other healing methods, also have a decisive influence. Here too, we have already done a lot of preparatory work. A more concrete approach for cosmeticians, alternative practitioners, dermatologists and physicians arises from the examination of the polyphenols which are quantified protein analytically and isolated individually, which in preventive medical consistency leads to the distinction from the conventional medicine mentioned above.
Foundational research of gene technology
Definition of terms:
A note upfront: Biotechnology does not equal genetic engineering. In the USA, biotechnology is usually understood as the field that in Germany is termed genetic engineering. The former includes all technologies based on biological reactions - usually in microorganisms. It also includes genetic engineering but, does not necessarily imply that biotechnology applications always represent a genetic intervention in the affected organisms.
Genetic engineering, on the other hand, implies all methods to identify → characterize → isolate genetic material, and goes on to experimental creation of new combinations à introduction à multiplication of new genetic material in other organisms. In genetic engineering, the fundamental genetic substance of organisms is deliberately modified. In the food industry, it is popular practice to integrate a foreign gene into the genome of the host organism so that the host can produce newly coded proteins dictated by the implanted foreign gene. However, the term genetic engineering itself can be differentiated even further. For instance, in traditional genetic cultivation there is no direct intervention in the genome of individual organisms, as all changes in genome are merely caused by anthropogenic selection with a momentum of their own with the goal of deliberately modifying the characteristics of wild species to achieve a certain goal (e.g. with cross-breeding). This method does not require a virus.
Enzymes are both carriers and tools of heritable genetic material. They are organic macromolecules that act as biological catalysts to facilitate and accelerate chemical reactions in organisms without being modified. Moreover, they can be changed in such manner that the physical modifications they are subjected to are completely reversible. They can also catalyze the same reactions several times in series, all the while with a large turnover in substrate* with a small amount of their own. (technical term* for chemical substances transformed with enzymes). Enzymes are the miracle workersof all organisms. In principle, it is true that all reactions triggered by enzymes can also take place without enzymes – however, this would require a much greater amount of energy (e.g. increased pressure or higher temperatures) in addition to the use of chemicals (e.g. acids, bases) to achieve the same results. Each enzyme has its own action hub to dock onto the substrate - whereas each enzyme and substrate are complementary to each other, meaning that one cannot work without the other. No life without enzymes! Even the smallest of beings, bacteria, have about 500 enzymes each that have an effect on the metabolism and structure of their cells. From a purely chemical perspective, enzymes are proteins composed of a total of 21 proteogenic long amino acids that are compounded in highly complex macro molecules. Their three-dimensional structure determines the sequence of the individual amino acids, enabling the selective involvement in specific reactions. As a result, in molecular terms, enzymes are gigantic (see wood structure formula on the right), but compared to cells, "nanoscopic" in size.
Enzymes restructure large molecules, combine smaller ones to larger molecular compounds, break down amylum, fats, cellulose, proteins and other components into their components, etc. Digestion, decomposition and fermentation – none of these processes would be possible without enzymes. All information required for enzyme synthesis is, as is the case with other proteins, encoded as algorithms in the genetic material of the subject. This means that they are passed on from one generation to the next. The chemical carrier of this information is, as is known, DNA. These are the long molecule chains of DesoxyriboNucleicAcid (DNA). These DNA molecules are made up of four different bases, the chronological sequence of which also determined the procedural sequence of the individual amino acids during the synthesis of proteins. This makes it possible to, for example, read the respective DNA segments when creating proteins. Ever since humans have started to prepare and cook food, enzymes have had an important role to play (e.g. in the traditional fermentation process to manufacture cheese or brew beer).
Relevance for the fermentation of hops:
In the brewing industry in particular, amylases and proteases are released when the corn is ground, and the resulting starch can be transformed into fermentable sugar, with which the nutrients yeast needs to grow can be extracted from proteins. Humulus lupulus is used as a preserving ingredient with an antibacterial and anti-oxidative effect. Its active agent, which also has a sedative, anti-
inflammatory effect, is indispensable, as the anti-inflammatory effect of Humulons- (a phloroglucinol derivative with 3 isoprenoid side chains) alone has a healing effect on the alcohol-resistant liver of beer consumers. This anti-inflammatory effect of Humulon was proven as a transcription suppression of the gene belonging to the sanative enzyme
cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2). Taking this as a basis, it is possible to inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins*. (Technical term* for tissue hormones that are responsible for pain, blood clotting, inflammations such as acne, hepatic cirrhosis, dental caries, etc.). Whereas cultivating Humulus lupus usually is possible without genetic engineering, it is yet, in consequence, not completely free from the influences of genetic manipulation. The human food chain is far too complicated and concatenated to be able to hermetically isolate such an important link while at the same time still have access to all toxic channels available. To date, it has never been ascertained whether the viral intervention of mankind in the original genetic material is limited to genetic engineering laboratories. Consider, for example, the incorrectly disposal of genetically modified laboratory waste (see below). In other words: no one can say for sure that the viral genetic manipulation has not already started to act on its own accord somewhere in the world. Finding out how something works is one thing; being able to control what can be done with such inventions, is another altogether. For example: nuclear energy and the nuclear bomb. The more important it is to use capable scientists who jointly and individually keep watch over the research that is released into the world so carelessly so that it may not completely slip the control of its authors. For the safety of all - to limit the damage of tomorrow! In the following I will describe the key fundamentals of practical genetic engineering in as brief and simple terms as possible without entering into much detail regarding the consequences (positive or negative) - for understandable reasons. It all begins with the famous viral passenger DNA that can be obtained with three main methods. For the sake of comprehension, I will go into more detail explaining the first method than the second and only touch upon the third briefly to keep things simple, I will focus on the DNA of human insulin. Many thanks for your kind attention!
Gene Method I.
Already in the 1970s the American biochemist and entrepreneur Craig Venter developed the most radical method, known as "shotgun cloning" or also shotgun sequencing. Using restriction endonucleases (REN) or with the aid of physical shearing forces (see. example formula), first the entire genome of the donor organism is multireplicated, or reproduced, to then break it down to
manageable fragments with specific enzymes. Numerous
different DNA sequences result from this - for most of them, however, there is no use. (disposal = inappropriate = risk!). The average length of the aforementioned fragments is determined by the REN chosen. If the chosen enzyme separates the strand at frequently recurring points, the number of fragments increases, whereas they will also be shorter. If, however, an REN is cut at fewer, the fragments will be fewer as well but longer. But no matter how you look at it, there is no discernible rule whether the sought gene, the only one suitable to be implanted into the plasmid* is more probable to be found on the fewer but longer or more numerous albeit shorter fragments. (Technical term* for small, mostly ring-shaped, self-replicating, double-helix DNA molecules, found extrachromosomally in bacteria and archaea, as they are not themselves part of bacterial chromosomes). Presupposing that the DNA of a single human cell was broken down into only 5,000, it would at first be impossible to know in which fragment the insulin gene can be found. Therefore, 5,000 cloning experiments would always be necessary in order to find the one the researcher is searching for by integrating each and every one of these 5,000 DNA fragments into a plasmid and in bacteria cells. It is then possible to determine which of these 5,000 bacteria cells is the only oneable to produce insulin or, in other words, which of the 4,999 elaborately genetically
manipulated cells do can be excluded and disposed of as waste. A highly time and cost-consuming method! On the other hand, only those DNA segments with a length of 5,000 to 20,000 base pairs* are relevant (technical term* for 2 opposing nucleobases in the double helix of a DNA or RNA held together by reciprocal special molecular bridges). Most of the intermediate products that are produced are, once again, waste. It is almost a game of luck to find the latter DNA sequence in that DNA fragment in which, hopefully, the precise sequence that is to be used
as insulin gene can be found. And not to forget the risk, that among the aforementioned 4,999 residual bacteria cells might be one, that has been genetically modified after all (referred to in the disposal problem mentioned above). In simple words: a genetically mutated virus hives off in a bacterium which can no longer be identified and is released as a mutation to an entirely strange world where it now has to find its place. It is rather improbable that this mutated bacterium will die in the process. It is more probable that it would find a new way, as nature does, to find its place among other, natural bacteria, opening a Pandora's box that cannot be controlled nor reverted! Ultimately, this Pandora's box has already been opened, as evidenced by the infertile cultivation land on which no natural seed is able to sprout if the soil has come into contact with genetically modified, that is, virally cloned, seed once. What its effects will be on humans and animals who consume such produce on the long term is a horrific chapter that shall be seen...
Short clarification on what restriction endonuclease (REN) means and triggers:
Bacteria are the smallest living creatures of the world. Without bacteria, there is no life! This makes bacteria even more vulnerable, as they are under constant threat by viruses that inject their DNA or RNA into bacteria cells. Consequently, the bacterial protein synthesis mechanism is reprogrammed in such way that instead of new bacteria proteins, it starts to produce new viruses. In the course of time, however, nature has reacted wonderfully as bacteria have more frequently started to develop enzymes (restriction enzymes) that have gradually almost neutralized the viral DNA. And then the improve-it-all man comes along: With specially prepared restriction enzymes, REN, he literally chops the foreign DNA resulting from the virus in bits and pieces. In doing so, man interrupts the natural protection mechanism to accelerate it with the aforementioned REN and counteract viral attacks even faster. Basically, this is an attempt to protect the bacteria's own DNA against its own restriction enzymes using methylated bases (masking). However, since the virus DNA usually does not have such methyl groups, it is identified as foreign by the REN. The problem here is that a great number of such viruses have adapted to this masking mechanism in the course of the genetic time line or were able to mutate into the natural process, meaning that they now also have these methyl groups in their DNA and are therefore immune to the bacterial REN.
Let's presume we already have an mRNA available (abbr.* messenger RNA: single-stranded RNA transcript, that is, a fragment of DNA, belonging the respective gene; this RNA is synthesized by the RNA polymerase enzyme and prepared by ribosomes for the biosynthesis of protein by means of transcription). With reverse transcription (rT), it is possible to create complementary DNA that can then be transformed into double-stranded DNA. In our insulin example, this method is recommended as pancreatic cells have great amounts of insulin mRNA, meaning that the insulin messenger RNA can be easily obtained from them.
In chronological sequence:
The initial mRNA strand is completed with complementary DNA nucleotides.
The result is a strand of DNA, forthwith termed cDNA.
The initial mRNA + cDNA forms a hybrid double strand.
RNAses (RNA desynthesizing enzymes) remove the mRNA from this double strand.
cDNA remains and is methodically completed to form a double strand of DNA.
This DNA double strand is ultimately integrated into a procaryot cell.
Short clarification on what reverse transcription (rT)means and triggers:
Normal viruses are usually made up of one individual double strand of DNA. This strand is surrounded by some sort of protein sleeve. In addition to these normalor natural viruses there is also a great amount of what is known as 'retroviruses', the genetic material of which does no longer have natural DNA (that is, no individual double-stranded DNA), but is made up of several individual strands of RNA. And this is where the 'improve-it-all man' starts to cause problems: If and as soon as such a retrovirus injects its RNA in a prokaryotic* or an eucaryotic** host cell (cells without* or with** a nucleus of their own), a sort of biovectorlogical communication failure arises, as the host cell can naturally only replicate and transcribe double-stranded DNA and, consequently, practically does not know what to do with this artificial virus RNA. To work around this law of nature, man makes the RNA virus produce an adaptable enzyme (generally known as reverse transcriptase) which is able to transcribe the single-stranded virus RNA to a double-stranded DNA (therefore reversetranscription rT). This ultimately enables the reverse-transcribed virus DNA to be accepted in the biochemical apparatus of the affected host cell as if were completely natural.This way, the eucaryotic DNA obtained by means of genetic engineering using rT is smuggled into the bacteria cell. There are numerous known methods to introduce vector DNA into a host cell, but here I only wish to mention two of the better-known ones: 1. transformation and 2. transfection!
In the first method, most bacteria take up plasmids as this is a natural means of exchanging important properties (e.g. to determine the degree of resistance to certain antibiotics). And as taking in a plasmid is exclusively beneficial, as mentioned above, with time only those bacteria survive that are more capable of taking in plasmids that ones that are less capable to do so.
In the second insertion method, transfection, the passenger DNA is shrouded in a virus shell, meaning that the transfer takes place like a virus infection. To do so, initially harmless viruses are reprogrammed with genetic engineering in such way that they become carriers for the corresponding passenger DNA. (I will spare you the details here.)
If the exact base sequence of the gene that is to be cloned is known, it is possible to synthesize artificial DNA with technologically highly advanced equipment. This method makes post-treatment of the DNA significantly easier. Usually, method III is used to obtain genetically produced insulin. The main reason for this is that the amino acid sequence of insulin has been considered known for decades and the corresponding machinery has been perfected and fine-tuned by genetic engineers for years. Moreover, there are two relevant insulin chains with a synthesized DNA of their own. Therefore, every individual type of DNA is transferred to the corresponding bacteria that produce the two peptide chains of insulins as raw material. Only then can these chains be combined. However, as bacteria cannot do this on their own because nature has not provided them with the necessary tools, man intervenes with artificial virustechnology... but there are two important prerequisites, that have to be met, before it is able to produce insulin in the first place:
It has to be able to take up plasmids.
The plasmid has to contain an insulin gene.
However, only few host cells are able to take up plasmids. And even fewer of the absorbed plasmids contain the passenger DNA in the exact location where it is needed. This makes it difficult to identify successfully transformed bacteria, a rarity in itself, that fulfill these two basic prerequisites. To do so, it is necessary to determine whether
the transformation was carried out, that is, if a plasmid was indeed absorbed,
the recombination was successful, that is whether along with the passenger DNA a vector was also transferred,
and the insulin gene could be integrated in such manner that both the insulin mRNA can be transcribed, and insulin can be produced.
Explaining this in further detail would requires more in-depth analysis, which can be provided upon request…
Short clarification on what vector means and triggers:
Firstly: plasmids or viruses are vectors. Specifically, vector is synonymous to plasmid or virus and it is necessary to transport passenger DNA to the inside of a bacteria cell. An ideal vector has to meet the following five fundamental criteria:
It has to be able to uptake foreign DNA as a passenger.
It has to be able to easily introduce itself into the bacterial host cell without destroying the bacteria or vector itself.
It has to be able to divide in synchrony with the host cell, meaning that every time a host cell proliferates, the vector DNA has to replicate as well.
The replicated vectors must distribute themselves equally among the daughter cells when the cell divides.
The vectors must be easy to identify to be able to distinguish the successfully transformed bacteria from those that do not contain a vector.
In the end, irrespectively of if, and, if yes, how DNA is produced, before it can be integrated into the vector its ends always have to be modified so that the inserted REN produces what is known as "sticky ends" to the left and right of the actual gene. This can be achieved by "docking" short, synthetic DNA fragments (linkers) to the aforementioned ends. (Details on this will be provided on a different occasion).
Schematic depiction of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids):
Section of 1 DNA-strand with the tetra-nucleotide sequence ACGT (usually read from 5'to 3':5´–end to 3´–end). Due to the spatial distortion required for depiction, the P–O–CH2-links appear overstretched. In reality, however, they are as long as the vertical P-O lings.
Final personal remark:
The economic prioritization of all goals and achievements that infract the laws of nature are - per definition - against all origin. However, as all origin is good and therefore (is/was/must be) unimprovable, as it should remain, any aspirations to modify it is irremediably in disregard of all good. However, this does not mean that mankind should conduct research with courage and visionary goals. It should, however, respect holy boundaries it should deter from overstepping for the sake of its own genetic material. Therefore, the FEAT foundation will (must) take on such research work to regain control over the vast, in compliance with the goal of the foundation in the sense of "damage control".